A direct consequentialist about acts holds that the moral qualities of an act depend on the consequences of that act. Instead of turning pluralist, some consequentialists foreswear the aggregation of values.
Utilitarians who adopt this theory of value can then claim that an agent morally ought to do an act if and only if that act maximizes desire satisfaction or preference fulfillment, regardless of whether the act causes sensations of pleasure. Several philosophers assert that a moral theory should not be classified as consequentialist unless it is agent-neutral McNaughton and RawlingHoward-SnyderPettit This is known as virtue ethics.
What matters here is just that most pairs of these claims are logically independent, so a moral theorist could consistently accept some of them without accepting others.
If self-sacrifice is proposed as the only justification, then each person should take it into consideration before making the decision to act in the particular way. Another way in which people choose their actions in these ethical situations is by the obligation or duty they feel to act in a certain way.
To resolve this vagueness, we need to determine which of the various claims of classic utilitarianism are essential to consequentialism. Freedom and Reason, London: It implies that the action, which is right from the moral standpoint, produces a good result.
This contrast is brought out in issues such as voluntary euthanasia. That seems implausible to many utilitarians.
If we were required to maximize utility, then we would have to make very different choices in many areas of our lives. Oxford University Press, revised edition. Moreover, if the rule is publicly known, then patients will fear that they might be used as organ sources, so they would be less likely to go to a doctor when they need one.
Or, should people look toward prevention? Essays toward a Morality of Consequence, Cambridge: September Learn how and when to remove this template message Teleological ethics Greek telos, "end"; logos, "science" is an ethical theory that holds that the ends or consequences of an act determine whether an act is good or evil.
Two-level utilitarianism proposes the use of the intuition and intuitive moral thinking, as it will maximize happiness. Treating a broken hip, for example, takes tens of thousands of dollars plus even more time and money for rehabilitation.
The reason is that hedonism overlooks the value of real friendship, knowledge, freedom, and achievements, all of which are lacking for deluded people on the experience machine. Or one could give up aggregation altogether and just rank total sets of consequences or total worlds created by acts without breaking those worlds down into valuable parts.
Anyway, even if rule utilitarianism accords with some common substantive moral intuitions, it still seems counterintuitive in other ways. Consequentialism is the moral theory supporting the idea that the consequences of the particular action are the basis for any judgment of it.
Hence, this move is worth considering, even though it has never been developed and deviates far from traditional consequentialism, which counts not only proximate consequences but all upshots — that is, everything for which the act is a causally necessary condition.
Smart32; Feldman17—Consequential, Nonconsequential, and Virtue Theory In this week’s Discussion, you will explore the major groups of ethical theories we call consequentialist (teleological), nonconsequentialist (deontological), and virtue theories. The utilitaianism theory of the consequentialist approach is very powerful and is known as one of the most persuasive approaches to normative.
The term "consequentialism" was coined by Elizabeth Anscombe ( - ) in her essay "Modern Moral Philosophy", as a pejorative description of what she Some consequentialist theories include: Utilitarianism, which holds that an action is right which is the philosophy that pleasure is the most important pursuit of mankind, and.
Consequentialism - this moral philosophy is probably best captured in the aphorism "the ends justify the means." An example of a consequentialism system of ethics would be utilitarianism, in which the most morally desirable situation is that in which people's happiness is maximized.
Teleological theories differ on the nature of the end that actions ought to promote. is derived from consequential thinking: a better-informed agent is able to bring about better consequences.
[citation needed  G.
E. M. Anscombe in her essay "Modern Moral Philosophy" into describe what she saw as the central.
Apr 03, · Essay on Consequentialism The term was first introduced to broad public in by G.E.M. Anscombe in the essay “Modern Moral Philosophy”, in which the author tried to describe weak sides of definite moral theories.
Consequentiolist theory addresses three basic questions- what kind of consequences are said to be good.Download