King University of Texas, Austin. The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, published inis a descriptive study of both American and British English in which each chapter follows individual spelling conventions according to the preference of the main editor of that chapter.
John Algeo University of Georgia. The notion of varieties in this context is similarly dynamic, as new contexts, new realities, new discourses, and new varieties continue to emerge.
Both exclude English varieties in Europe. At this stage there is a change in the dynamics of identity as the young nation sees itself as less defined by its differences from World englishes former colonial power as a composite of subgroups defined on regional, social and ethnic lines.
Tope Omoniyi Roehampton University. Finally, the outer layer consists of localized varieties which may have similarities with the regional standards or emerging standards.
Literary creativity in local English begins to flourish. English as a lingua franca in foreign language teaching[ edit ] See also: In these regions, English is not the native tongue, but serves as a useful lingua franca between ethnic and World englishes groups.
Dhillon University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. What could be better than a type of English that saves you from having to re-edit publications for individual regional markets!
It is often suggested that languages are autonomouswhile dialects are heteronomous. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. English in West Africa began with trade. As far as spelling is concerned, the differences between American and British usage became noticeable due to the first influential lexicographers dictionary writers on each side of the Atlantic.
Marko Modiano Stokholm, Sweden. By the twenty-first century, non-native English speakers have come to outnumber native speakers by a factor of three, according to the British Council.
International English refers to much more than an agreed spelling pattern. World Englishes and Communicative Competence: While British colonialism laid the foundation for English over much of the world, International English is a product of an emerging world culture, very much attributable to the influence of the United States as well, but conceptually based on a far greater degree of cross-talk and linguistic transculturation, which tends to mitigate both U.
Higher education, the legislature and judiciarynational commerce and so on may all be carried out predominantly in English. For the practical test of BGE, 12 lessons were prepared in order to cover half of a school year.
With this new vocabulary, additional vocabulary borrowed from Latin with Greek, another approximately one-third of Modern English vocabulary, though some borrowings from Latin and Greek date from later periodsa simplified grammar, and use of the orthographic conventions of French instead of Old English orthography, the language became Middle English the language of Chaucer.
A true International English might supplant both current American and British English as a variety of English for international communication, leaving these as local dialects, or would rise from a merger of General American and standard British English with admixture of other varieties of English and would generally replace all these varieties of English.
Dual standard[ edit ] Two approaches to International English are the individualistic and inclusive approach and the new dialect approach. Additionally, it is a system that is suited for self-teaching as well as regular teaching.
The second circle consists of features which may become internationally common or may fall into obscurity.
The two processes are quite different. By the beginning of the 14th century, English had regained universal use and become the principal tongue of all England, but not without having undergone significant change.
By this time political events have made it clear that the settler and indigenous strands are inextricably bound in a sense of nationhood independent of Britain.
From the early s, the six countries achieved independence in succession; but English remained the official language and had large numbers of second language speakers in Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi along with Chewa.- Volume 36 World Englishes; - Volume 35 World Englishes; - Volume 34 World Englishes; - Volume 33 World Englishes; - Volume 32 World Englishes.
It is a thoughtful, clearly presented overview of Englishes around the world, which builds on substantial and authoritative scholarship, most of it by the authors themselves." --Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages. World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States.
The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally and analyzing how. World englishes definition, the many and varied dialects of English spoken in different parts of the world, including not only American and British English, but such varieties as Indian, Pakistani, Australian, and New Zealand English, as well as the English spoken in various African and Asian countries.
In some parts of the world, English is spoken as a.
World Englishes (A Hodder Education Publication) 2nd Edition. by Gunnel Melchers (Author) › Visit Amazon's Gunnel Melchers Page. Find all the books, read about the author, and more.
World Englishes, Second Edition provides you with an engaging overview of the global variations in vocabulary. For a simple graphic of Braj Kachru's circle model of World Englishes, visit page eight of the slideshow World Englishes: Approaches, Issues, and Resources.
Author Henry Hitchings has observed that the term World English "is still in use, but is contested by critics who believe it strikes too strong a note of dominance" (The Language Wars.Download